The pug is a toy dog with a wrinkly, short-muzzled face and curled tail. The breed has a fine, glossy coat that comes in a variety of colors, although often black or fawn, and a compact square body with well-developed muscles. Known in ancient China as lo-sze, pugs as breeding animals may have contributed to the English Bulldog, the modern Pekingese and the King Charles Spaniel. Pugs were brought from China to Europe in the seventeenth century and were popularized in Western Europe by the House of Orange of the Netherlands, and the House of Stuart. Pugs remain popular into the twenty-first century, with some famous celebrity owners. A pug was judged Best in Show at the World Dog Show in 2004.
Pugs can suffer from a variety of health issues, including overheating, obesity and some genetic disorders. Two conditions in particular, necrotizing meningoencephalitis, which is an inflammation affecting the brain and its membranes, and hemivertebrae, which can result in paralysis, are particular concerns for the breed. Care must be taken to clean the ears and the facial skin folds of these dogs.